Blisters and Ulcers in the Mouth


Most people sometimes have blisters, ulcers, or other changes in the mouth’s mucosa. It may be due to some infection or injury to the mouth, but often the cause of the trouble is unknown. Mouth dryness over a longer period of time and use of certain drugs increase the risk of getting blisters and ulcers in the mouth.

The problems in the mouth can be more or less troublesome for a shorter or longer time. The problems vary, some blisters and ulcers hurt, and the mucous membrane can be swollen and red-colored or white-colored. It can burn and hurt when you eat.

Your treatment is changing

Some blisters and ulcers go off by themselves or after treatment, while the symptoms can only be relieved by others.

If you have mild problems you can, for example, use a special kind of toothpaste or mouthwash. Against dry mouth, there are, among other things, chewing gum and lozenges that can increase saliva production.

Sometimes medicines are needed, partly to heal the wounds and blisters, and partly to relieve you if you are in pain.

When and where should I seek care?

Most people who have blisters and ulcers in the mucous membranes of the mouth do not need to seek care because the problems usually go away by themselves.

Contact a health care provider if you have any of the following:

  • You have a hard time eating.
  • You have ulcers in your mouth for more than two weeks.
  • You have mouth ulcers that heal but then come back.
  • You have great trouble with it burning in your mouth.

Contact a dentist if you think the trouble is due to problems with your teeth or a dental prosthesis.

If it is a weekend, you can wait until it is every day. You can contact many receptions by logging in.

  • You have an impaired immune system.
  • You’re pregnant.
  • This applies to a newborn child.
  • You have a fever or feel generally affected.

Infections and inflammations can cause problems

The oral cavity is ultimately covered by a mucous membrane. The outermost layer, the so-called epithelium, is relatively thin and acts as a barrier to protect what is in the underlying connective tissue. In the connective tissue are various types of fibers and muscle cells, blood vessels, nerves, and salivary glands.

In the mucous membranes, there are sensory cells that feel pain, touch, and temperature. On the tongue, which is also covered by mucous membranes, are special taste cells or taste buds. These are mainly on the upper side of the tongue and look like small buds. They are also available on the sides of the tongue.

Usually with blisters and ulcers in the mouth

Most often it hurts or stings if the outermost layer of the mucosa breaks down and it becomes a wound. The wounds look almost the same even though the reason for their occurrence varies.

When a wound becomes immune, the immune system becomes active. It has been initiated to protect the body against microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses or fungi. When the immune system attacks these microorganisms, the oral mucosa in that area can be affected so much that a wound occurs.

The irritation or wound in the mucous membrane can also occur due to the immune system reacting incorrectly. Then it is a so-called autoimmune reaction.

Sores and irritations in the mouth can be caused by infections due to:

  • virus
  • bacteria
  • sponge.

They may also be due to the following inflammatory changes:

  • oral lichen planus
  • wipe or cleanse wounds.

Blisters and ulcers in the oral mucosa may also be due to the following:

  • that a prosthetic scab
  • that there are bit sores
  • that it scrapes from sharp edges on fillings and teeth.

Smoking and snuff can damage the oral mucosa

Sniffing causes damage to the oral mucosa, primarily in the area where you have snus. It is common for the mucosa to become sore where the snuff is added. In addition, snuff often causes the gums in this area to become irritated and retract so that the gums are exposed.

If you smoke there is an increased risk of developing lip and oral cavity cancer.

What are the causes of trouble?

This chapter is about what your troubles in the oral cavity’s mucosa may be.

Temporary wounds in the oral mucosa

More than every other person gets occasional ulcers in the oral mucosa every now and then. It is called afte or bleeding ulcer. They may look like mouth blisters, but it is really one or more small wounds. They are usually up to five millimeters in size, slightly crater-shaped with a strong redness in the area around the wound. The wounds can hurt, but they do not bleed.

It varies widely from person to person how many wounds you get and how often they occur. Most people get occasional wounds, while others have many wounds at the same time and quite often.

Inflammed, thinned and sometimes sore mucosa

Oral lichen planus, OLP, is a common change in the oral mucosa. OLP causes oral mucosa to become inflamed, thinned, and sometimes sore. It can feel uncomfortable when you eat fruit, spicy foods, or drink something hot. Some tubes of toothpaste can also cause problems.

OLP can look different. The oral mucosa may be whitish and thickened or severely reddened and sore. Sometimes you can get areas that are reddened and covered by white lines.

Most often you get OLP on the inside of the cheek and in the gums, but the problems can also occur elsewhere in the oral cavity. OLP is common on both sides of the mouth. The symptoms vary in strength and may recur in periods.

The cause of the disease is not entirely clear, but it is known that some of the cells in the body’s immune system cause inflammation in the mucous membrane. Food or allergies are believed not to contribute to the problems.

Sometimes materials used to fix teeth can cause changes in the oral mucosa similar to oral lichen planus. They can cause you inflammation and ulcers. It is called lichenoid material or contact reaction.

The reason is probably that you are hypersensitive to substances contained in the dental material. The changes usually disappear if the filling is replaced with another material. Specialist dentists can assess whether the mucosal disorders are due to the dental filling material or whether it is OLP.

Sweat in the mouth

That it burns in the mouth is a common symptom, both in the oral mucosa and on the tongue. It can have many causes. Sometimes you have to have a blood test to see if the sweating is due to iron deficiency, deficiency of vitamin B12, or folic acid, which is also a vitamin B.

The fact that it is burning in your mouth may also be because you are tense in your jaws or pressing your tongue. Some mental illnesses or concerns may be the cause, especially if you are dry mouth at the same time due to medication. It can also burn in your mouth if you are hypersensitive to any material included in dental procedures or removable dentures.


About half of all adults have a fungal cavity. It is completely normal and usually does not cause any symptoms. Sometimes the fungus can grow and cause an infection. This may happen, for example, if you are treated with certain drugs such as antibiotics and cortisone. The risk of fungal infection also increases in dry mouth, if you have dental prostheses or if you smoke.

In the case of a fungal infection in the oral cavity, inflammation occurs which causes the mucosa to become red and often sting. You can also get white coatings on the oral mucosa.

It is common for a small child to get a fungal infection in the mouth, called cod. This is because the child has an incomplete immune system. Cod in the mouth means that the tongue, inside of the cheeks and palate get a whitish coating. It is not dangerous and for the most part, it disappears by itself without treatment.


Munherpes is common and is because you have been infected with a virus. The first infection usually occurs in childhood and adolescence and you can have more or less major problems. Then you get superficial wounds in large parts of the oral mucosa.

Healed herpes sores do not infect, but the virus remains dormant in the body. Many people get no further trouble. In others, the virus is regularly activated and causes new wounds. Herpes sores can be triggered by irritating the mucous membrane in some way, for example, when tanning.

Munherpes begins as small fluid-filled blisters that quickly burst and become small wounds. They can coalesce into larger sores on the lips or skin next to it. You can also get ulcers inside your mouth. It is also common for the skin itself to blush or swell. You almost always get sores from the wounds and often the pain and swelling already come one to two days before the wounds are formed. It usually takes about a week before the herpes sores are healed.

Treatments of blisters and ulcers in the mouth

This chapter is about what treatments you may need for your complaints.

Sweat in the mouth and the spoon

If there is a clear reason why it is burning in the mouth, it can be treated. For example, you may need to treat infections of the oral cavity or get a bite.

Furthermore, if you are dry in the mouth, it can often be alleviated with any saliva-stimulating or salivating product. Since some medications cause dry mouth, it may also be good to discuss with a doctor if any medication can be replaced.

The dental prosthesis can cause fungal infections

You can get treatment with medicines that you rinse your mouth with if you have a fungal infection that does not go over. It contains the active substance nystatin. For more severe forms of fungal infection, you may need to take fluconazole capsules, such as Diflucan.

Sometimes it can become a fungal infection during a dental prosthesis. It is usually enough to clean the prosthesis properly and not use it at night. There are special toothbrushes and special toothpaste for dentures. If you have more severe problems, and it is a lot of burning, you should contact a dentist.

If you have a fungal infection during the prosthesis, it is also common that it does not sit well. Therefore, you may also need to adjust the denture of a dentist.

Sharp teeth and ill-fitting dentures

There may be damage to the oral mucosa if you have sharp teeth or poorly fitting dentures. You may need to have your dentist grind your teeth or adjust your dentures.

You can have a tissue sample to answer why the wound does not heal even though you have been treated. With local anesthesia, the dentist removes a few millimeters of the tissue to analyze it in a microscope. It doesn’t hurt to leave a tissue sample. It is rare that prolonged mouth ulcers are a sign of any serious illness.

Treatment of afte relieves

It is not known what causes temporary wounds in the oral mucosa, which are called aphthous wounds or afte. Therefore, there is no treatment that cures, but it is possible to relieve the symptoms and make you more rarely get sores.

It is sufficient to use a toothpaste for sensitive oral mucosa if you only have slight problems with afte. Then the toothpaste must not contain the substance sodium lauryl sulfate. At the pharmacies, there are also other gel-type or mouthwashes to relieve the problems.

Supplements of vitamin B12 can provide relief for some people.

Sometimes it is difficult to eat because it hurts. Then you may need prescription drugs.

OLP is usually treated with cortisone

There is no medicine to remove oral lichen planus, OLP, for good. Most people who suffer from OLP suffer from a long period of time. The trouble comes regularly, but you can be quite symptom-free between the periods.

It is common for you to receive a drug with cortisone for a limited time if you have major problems. Treatment and follow-up checks take place at a dentist, often a specialist. How often and how long you need to go on checks varies.

You may need to replace any dentures that interfere with the oral mucosa. It is also important to be extra careful about oral hygiene to keep oral mucosa healthy. At an oral hygienist, you can check that it is.

Herpes sores heal on their own

There is no treatment that can remove the herpes virus, but you should try to relieve the trouble and avoid infecting someone else. The infection can spread if you share cutlery, lip balms, and towel and via brushes. It is important to wash your hands frequently so as not to infect anyone.

The wounds heal on their own, but there are various medications that can have some soothing effect. When treating oral herpes, it is important that you begin when the first symptoms of tingling sensation come to prevent the virus from spreading.

In the case of moderate lips, there are no prescription creams in pharmacies. The cream is applied where you are in pain and it only works in that place.

There are prescription antivirus drugs in tablet form that have good effects if you have severe mouth problems. The drugs prevent the virus from multiplying and shorten the time you have symptoms.

It is good to protect yourself from the sun with sunscreen or, for example, a cap if you get herpes outbreaks of sunbathing.

Eating and drinking can be difficult

It can be difficult to eat as usual when you have mouth pain. Some food stings and it can be difficult to chew. Foods such as soup, film milk, cream, and ice cream may be easier to get. You have to try it out.

It is important to get fluid if you have difficulty eating. Small children may need to be spoon-fed.

Influence and participate in your care

You can seek care at any medical center or open specialist clinic you want throughout the country. Sometimes a referral to the open specialized care is required.

You should understand the information

In order for you to be involved in your care and treatment, it is important that you understand the information you receive from the healthcare staff. Ask questions if you don’t understand. For example, you should receive information about treatment options and how long you may have to wait for care and treatment.

Children should also be involved in their care. The older the child, the more important it is.

If you need tools, you should get information about what is available and how to get it.

Your consent is important

Once you have received information about what options and options for the care you have, you can give your consent or in some other way express a yes. This also applies to you who are not of legal age.

You may choose not to give your consent to the care you are offered. You may also withdraw your consent at any time.

Children should be able to participate

There is no age limit for when a child can have an influence over their care. The child’s ability to participate is related to the child’s maturity.

The older the child, the more important it is for them to be involved in their care. In order to be active in the care and to make decisions, it is important that you as an adult and the child understand the information you receive from the care staff.

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