Obesity in adults

Being overweight is when you weigh so much that it is unhealthy. Heavy obesity is called obesity. In obesity, the risk of diseases such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and joint damage to the joints increases. Sometimes only small changes are needed to reduce weight. You can get help if you need it.

This text is about obesity and obesity in adults. You can also read the text on obesity and obesity in children. Here you can read about the most common methods to find out if you have obesity or obesity.

What is obesity?

Being overweight is not a disease, but you who are overweight are at risk of developing obesity. You who have obesity are at increased risk of getting other diseases. Obesity is therefore counted as a disease.

There are various methods you can use to assess your weight . For example, the limits of what is overweight and what is obesity can be calculated using BMI. 

Calculate BMI as follows:

Weigh and take your weight in kilos. Multiply your length in meters by your length in meters. Divide the weight by that number. Example: 70 kg / (1.70 m X 1.70 m) = BMI 24.2.

  • Normal weight is defined as a BMI between 18.5 and 25.
  • Overweight is defined as a BMI between 25 and 30.
  • Obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 and up.

When and where should I seek care?

Contact a health care center if any of the following is true of you:

  • You have obesity or obesity that causes you trouble.
  • You are overweight or obese even though you have been trying to lose weight on your own.

You can contact many receptions by logging in .

Causes of overweight and obesity

Overweight and obesity can be due to many different things. Above all, it is about living habits. That is, we eat too much and move too little. For example, the availability of soft drinks, sweets and fast food has increased. We also drink more alcohol today than in a long time and alcohol contains many calories. At the same time, we are becoming increasingly sedentary, partly because many people sit for a long time watching different types of screens. Heredity also matters, for example, you may have a hereditary ability to store fat more easily than others.

There are also several other factors that can help you gain overweight or obesity.

Stress can increase the risk of obesity

Stress can affect the brain in a way that can lead to depression, anxiety and increased appetite. Under stress, the body forms more of the hormone cortisol. Cortisol can contribute to obesity and affect the body’s insulin balance, leaving you at risk for type 2 diabetes .

Stress can be caused by many different things. You can get stressed when you have too much to do, or too little to do, for example in case of long-term unemployment. Stress can also be caused by, for example, health problems, bullying or having a difficult work situation.

Many people use food to get comfort and peace in a stressful everyday life.

Sleep deprivation affects appetite

The less sleep a person gets, the more likely they are to become overweight. This is partly because the body releases hormones that control appetite during sleep. The amount of hormones decreases if you sleep too little. It can increase the risk of obesity and other diseases. It is not only the number of hours that is important, but also that you sleep regularly and do not sleep late.

As we get older, we gain weight more easily

As we get older, it is common for us to lose muscle, especially if you do not move as much. In addition, metabolism usually decreases as we get older. Therefore, you will gain weight if you continue to eat the same amount as before. Many also change the weight during menopause and get more fat around the waist than before.

Feeling bad mentally can make us eat more

How we feel often affects our relationship with food and eating habits. Many people eat in response to negative emotions, such as anxiety, weak self-esteem, or depressed mood .

Some diseases can lead to overweight

Overweight can sometimes be due to hormone disorders that affect appetite and metabolism. Also, certain diseases that reduce the ability to be physically active can lead to overweight, such as chronic joint diseases.

Eating disorders can also cause you to gain weight, such as heat-eating disorder and bulimia .

Medicines can cause weight gain

Some medicines may help you gain weight, such as cortisone and anti- depressants, psychosis and epilepsy .

Obesity and obesity increase the risk of other diseases

Obesity and obesity can cause many illnesses and problems. The more overweight you have, the greater the risk of getting these diseases. 

Abdominal fat is more harmful than subcutaneous fat

The fat settles in different places in the body of different people. Some often have a large fat layer around the waist and inside the stomach. It’s called abdominal obesity. Abdominal obesity poses a greater risk of disease. Another type of fat is subcutaneous fat. It is the fat that sits inside the skin and is stored for example on the thighs and hips.

The abdominal fat is harmful because it enters the bloodstream and can cause damage to the blood vessels, liver, and pancreas. Belly fat also adversely affects blood fats and blood pressure and causes the sugar to break down in the body as the insulin works poorly.

Obesity and obesity can cause illness

Being overweight and obese can make the body’s system for controlling blood pressure, blood sugar and blood fats work worse. It may increase the risk of contracting or exacerbating the following diseases or conditions:

  • Hypertension
  • type 2 diabetes
  • dyslipidemia
  • arteriosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries that increase the risk of heart attack and stroke
  • gallstone
  • fatty liver
  • asthma
  • problems with snoring and sleep apnea, ie breathing stops during sleep
  • strain injuries in joints
  • complications during pregnancy
  • cancer of the uterus n, ovaries, breasts and prostate
  • cancer of the esophagus
  • cancer of the colon , kidneys, gallbladder, liver and pancreas
  • infertility, that is, involuntary childlessness
  • dementia .

Many people with obesity and obesity have mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. The mental health problems tend to decrease if you lose weight.

Sometimes it is difficult to know if depression and depression cause an increased risk of obesity or if obesity in itself increases the risk of depression. Many medicines for depression also cause weight gain as a side effect.

In our society, many people feel that they are judged by their weight and lifestyle. It can sometimes have a negative effect on people who are becoming overweight. Some experience feelings of guilt and failure, which can increase the stress and risk of depression. Many who are overweight also feel discriminated against.

What can I do myself if I want to lose weight?

Most people find it difficult to change living habits. But keep in mind that even small, thoughtful changes can have major effects on health. Strict diets and hard workouts can be difficult to follow for a long time. Instead, for example, you can start by moving more into your everyday life or changing one of your eating habits. Then the possibility is greater that you can continue with the change.

Find a healthy diet that works for you

There are many different diets you can follow that help you lose weight. Some diets are aimed at reducing the amount of carbohydrates, others at reducing the amount of fat. Different methods suit different people.

It is not necessary to count calories. However, it is important to be aware of what good food is.

The important thing is that you find healthy eating habits that suit you. Try replacing some parts of your diet with healthier alternatives. You can take help of the plate model .

Touch you more

All physical activity and movement means you lose fat. Small changes also produce results. For example, you could try walking up the stairs instead of taking the elevator and getting off a bus stop earlier.

It is better for the body that you move frequently and slightly less, than that you exercise hard a couple of times a week. Walking, swimming and easy jogging are good activities to get rid of fat. You burn about as much by going fast as running.

It is also important to reduce the time you sit completely still, for example in front of the computer or the TV. Sitting still for a long time is a risk, even if you are very physically active at other times.

Learn how to manage your stress

Stress management can be an important part of the treatment of obesity. You can take help of relaxation exercises or mindfulness .

Investigations

You usually start by telling us about your eating habits and your life situation when you seek care for overweight and obesity.

It is common for the doctor to measure blood pressure . You may also submit a blood test so that your blood sugar and fat levels can be assessed. Blood sugar and blood fats are measured to see if you have diabetes or harmful amounts of fat in the blood.

The doctor also checks how your thyroid works. The thyroid hormones control, among other things, how the body absorbs nutrition and how the body gets rid of nutrition.

Sometimes the doctor also takes an ECG that shows the activity of the heart.

Those who have trouble snoring may need to investigate. Especially if you have a respiratory break .

Treatment for obesity in adults

It is common for you to meet a lifestyle nurse or dietician when seeking treatment for obesity in adults. Sometimes you receive treatment with medicines simultaneously. You can also get physical activity on prescription, FaR .

Sometimes you can participate in a group therapy where you can get advice and support in changing your behavior regarding food and physical activity.

Another treatment is to reduce the stomach through surgery .

Drug treatment for obesity in adults

In Europe, there is a registered anti-obesity drug that is subsidized, Xenical. There are also two non-subsidized drugs, Saxenda and Mysimba. The fact that the drugs are not subsidized means that you have to pay the full cost yourself.

It is important that you receive lifestyle treatment at the same time as the drug treatment. This improves the results of drug treatment. Lifestyle treatment means you get help with changing how you eat and how much you move.

Medication for obesity is a fairly new treatment method. Therefore, there is still no knowledge of how good the effects are when you have been treated for a longer period, ie more than four years.

Alli and Xenical contain the active substance, orlistat. Alli has a strength of 60 milligrams and can be purchased without prescription. Xenical has a strength of 120 milligrams and is prescription.

Alli and Xenical make the body absorb less fat. If you eat too much fat you get diarrhea.

Saxenda is taken once a day as an injection into the superficial fat on the stomach. The treatment costs about SEK 3000 per month. Saxenda reduces appetite and increases saturation. The most common side effects are nausea and constipation or diarrhea but this usually goes over.

Mysimba is a tablet that reduces appetite. The tablets are taken in the morning and evening. The treatment costs about SEK 1000 per month. The most common side effects are headaches and you get dry in your mouth. You can also get high blood pressure and feel mentally ill by Mysimba.

Risks of buying drugs online

Buying drugs on the Internet from serious vendors can involve great risks. Some of the risks are counterfeit drugs, drugs of unknown content, drugs that have no effect or that give too much effect. Therefore, always check that the vendor has the necessary permits to sell medicines online. 

Support groups and conversations

In some county councils and regions, health care offers groups that work to change behavior regarding food and eating. Sometimes the groups are led by a dietician, sometimes by a nurse.

In such a group you get to talk to others about eating behavior, food and physical activity. For example, you can get advice on shopping and cooking healthy food. The group also discusses different strategies in everyday life, such as trying to think about what has gone well and planning other rewards in their lives other than food.

powder Processing

Sometimes a treatment can be started by allowing you to eat different powders. The treatment is led by a nurse or a dietician and a doctor. The powder blends contain proteins, essential fatty acids, minerals, trace elements and vitamins needed by the body. The recommendation is that the powder treatment should last at most for 5 – 7 weeks. During this time, you lose weight by about 5 – 10 percent. After the powder diet, you will start eating regular food again. Then it is important that you have regular meals and avoid foods with a lot of calories. Powder treatment must be part of a long-term treatment program to produce long-lasting results.

To operate the stomach

One treatment for obesity is to remove part of the stomach . In Europe, the methods are mainly used, gastric bypass and gastric sleeve.

After an operation, many lose weight and retain the new lower weight for a long time. The best result is given to those who receive lifestyle treatment in combination with the operation.

You should understand the information

In order for you to be involved in your care and treatment, it is important that you understand the information you receive  from the healthcare staff. Ask questions if you don’t understand. For example, you should receive information about treatment options and how long you may have to wait for care and treatment .

You have the opportunity to  get help from an interpreter. You also have the opportunity to  get help from an interpreter if you have a hearing loss. 

If you need tools, you should get information about what is available and how to get it.

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